Tuesday, February 21, 2017

TWO

This is my second post on this subject matter, and I'm just thinking aloud.

Feeling low?  Feeling a bit depressed?  Or simply suffering from self-pity?  I find if difficult to differentiate these three especially when I'm a bit down.  At my age, this is a clear reminder that can only mean my time to move on is rather close, which is quite easy to understand.  May be I've stayed in this world a bit longer than I had to.   To the question, how do I wish it to happen?  I have a very simple answer: I want it quick, if it cannot be avoided.  You see I'm afraid of dying so I'm ruling out a long-drawn sickness, or even being pinned down for hours or days between two beams under the rubble of a building after an earthquake.  I don't like that a bit because I'm claustrophobic, and I could die under the rubble.  I think I deserve better than that.  Anyway, I prefer a quick one.  Now, how would this thing happen?  It's hard to say.

May be how I die is not my decision to make, but then again may be I could influence the decision, albeit with great effort, of course.  And this thing called influence could be cumulative effect.  Question is, have I done enough good in the past to tilt the balance in may favor?  I'd say, yes, but this may not be subject to self-evaluation so I'm not sure which way it would go especially if my evaluator holds some negative dossier on me which is not entirely impossible given what technology can do today.  That could turn out to be an embarrassment for myself, my family, and loved ones.  Not a good option.  Involved in an accident and I die instantaneously?  How horrible could that be!?  How the heck would I know how I died?  Bad option.  Commit suicide with a gun?  Suppose I miss the spot that could insure my swift death?  Very clumsy.  Terrible option.

For a reasonable man that I claim to be, I think all the options mentioned are bad and really unacceptable.  May be dying is not an option itself?  That's the funny part.  At some point in one's life, death is the only thing that must happen.

                                                                       ###


Friday, January 27, 2017

Sample Batanes Plants

Of course, these are not the only plant species in Batanes, but it's a good starting list that could come in handy for ecotourists who visit Batanes.  It is my understanding that Batanes is now always in the bucket list of tourists, and there are more tourists visiting the place than could be well handled by the resources there.  Anyway, familiarity with the common plant species in the province and knowing how to conserve them would help retain the natural beauty of the place.

This matrix was supposed to be part of a brochure for ecotourists and tourist guides in Batanes, but since I was not able to complete the plan I just had to provide this information based on the study of Madulid and Agoo (2006).  I would have loved to prepare a more complete brochure, being a frustrated biologist, but it was completely difficult to get appropriate funding for at last a mini-scientific exploration of the province to produce a more complete Brochure of Batanes Biodiversity.  Do enjoy this material.

Sample Batanes Plants
(SOURCE: Madulid, Domingo A. and Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo.  2006.  A Pictorial Guide to the Noteworthy Plants of Batanes Islands.   Manila: UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines, Science and Technology Committee, and National Museum  of the Philippines.)


LOCAL NAME

SCIENTIFIC NAME

FAMILY CATEGORY

DISTRIBUTION

HABITAT

USED BY LOCALS AS

Agagay
Coix lacryma-jobi L.
Culms
Phil, pantropic
Lowland grasslands
Ornamental plants; dried fruits used for handicrafts

Ahem
Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw.) Reibb.f. & Zoll.
Tree
Phil, Taiwan, South Thailand, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea
Lowland forests, wooded thickets
Leaves applied on forehead to relieve headaches; wrapper for cooked food.

Ainyas
Semecarpus cuneiformis Blco
Tree
Phil, Ryuku Islands, Celebes
Lowland forests. Thickets forming boundaries of farms
Sap is poisonous, causes severe irritation on skin
Akus
Allium sativum L.
Herb
Believed originated from Central Asia
Cultivated
Spice plant; juice rubbed on skin to cure skin diseases

Anoyoy (hanoyoy)
Wedelia biflora C.B.Clarke
Herb
Phil, India, Southwestern Pacific Islands
Grasslands, littoral cliffs sandy beeches

Weed, ground cover
Apdeng
Mallotus philippinensis (L.) Muell.-Ang.

Tree
Phil, India, Australia
Secondary forests
Firewood
Arius
Podocarpus costalis Presl.
Tree
Philippines (Batanes, Babuyan, Cagayan, Polilio); Taiwan (Lan Yu, Orchid Island)
Wooded cliffs; coastal areas, cultivated in backyards, roadsides
Known as “Batanes Tree” or the Provincial Tree of Batanes; highly ornamental; highly sought after as bonsai material; fruits are edible

Away
Flagella indica L.
Vine
Phil, Tanzania, Mozambique, West Pacific
Lowland primary forests, secondary forests, thickets

Tying material for roof thatches, fences
Bayawas
Psidium guajava L.
Shrub
Pantropic,  Introduced to the Philippines from tropical America
Open grasslands, wooded thickets
Fruit is edible; ground young leaves used as antiseptic for wounds.

Camigin
Cerbera manghas L.
Tree
Phil, Tanzania, Southwestern Pacific Islands
Common along beaches and littoral thickets

Ornamental tree
Cavugao
Citrus sp.
Tree
Batanes endemic
Cultivated in backyards in Itbayat
Fruit juice is sour, used as condiment for cooking

Chawi, Chayi
Pometia pinnata J.R.Forst.&G.Forst.
Tree
Phil, China, Southwestern Pacific Islands
Wooded thickets
Fruits are edible; shade tree, lumber, trunk used as keel of tataya.

Dapiyaw
Adonidia merrillii Becc.
Palm tree
Native of Palawan, now spread worldwide
Cultivated in gardens and backyards

Leaves trap rainwater and collected in jars
Dino
Morinda citrifolia L.
Tree
Phil, China, Australia
Coastal areas, secondary forests, lowland grasslands
Medicine for rheumatic and inflamed joints; to relieve chest and stomach pains

Dudoy (eroplano)
Gynura elliptica Yae & Hayata
Herb
Batanes. Taiwan (now found in other parts of the Philippines

Lowland grasslands
Common weed
Dukay
Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burk.
Vine
Phil, India, Papua New Guinea
Cultivated in fields
Major rootcrop in Batanes

Dukban
Citrus hybrid

Considered to be a cross between Citrus maxima and C. medica.

Shrub
Known only in Batanes
Wooded thickets, cultivated in farms, gardens, backyards
Fruit is a delicacy, eaten raw or pickled in vinegar.
Gagad, agagad
Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L.Burtt & R.M.Smith

Herb
Phil, China, Taiwan (Lan Yu)
Lowland grasslands
Ornamental plant; insect repellant
Galaya
Citrus sp.
Shrub


Native lemon, also known in other parts of the country as dayap

Hanot, vayu
Hibiscus tiliaceus L. subsp. tiliaceus
Talipariti tiliaceum (L.) Fryxell.

Tree
Phil, Mexico, South America, Africa, Pacific
Common in beaches or coastal areas
Bark used for ropes; stem used for fences, posts
Hantak
Stercula ceramica R.Br.
Tree
Pantropic
Lowland forests, wooded thickets
Fruits are edible; also used to expel worms and heal wounds

Hayaw
Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Herb
Pantropic
Lowland grasslands, along roadsides

Common weed
Homahom
Asplenium nidus L.
Fern
Phil, Africa, Australia
Lowland forest
Young leaves eaten as salad; ornamental plant

Kabaka-baka
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban
Herb
Phil, pantropic
Lowland grassland, l.ittoral cliffs
Leaves are crushed and applied to heal wounds.

Kalamansi
Citrus sp.
Tree




Kamalasayrin
Caesalpina crista L.
Vine
Phil, China, New Caledonia
Back of beach forests, wooded thickets near sea shores

Seeds used for ornaments
Kamanavang
Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb.
Shrub
Phil, Africa, southwestern Pacific Islands

Common along beaches
Small shade plant along beaches
Kamaya
Diospyros discolor Willd.
Tree
Phil, Indonesia
Lowland forests. Wooded thickets, also planted in backyards

Blackwood used for furniture, lumber, fruit is edible
Kanarem
Diospyros maritime Bl.
Tree
Phil, Ryuku Islands, Solomon Islands
Lowland forests, wooded thickets, areas near beaches
Ornamental plant; fruit is food for tattus.
Karorotong
Argemone mexicana L.
Herb
Native of tropical America, now spread throughout the tropics

Grasslands
Yellowish sap applied to wounds
Katawa
Ricinus communis L.
Shrub
Phil, Tropical and Subtropical areas
Secondary forests
Oil from fruit is cure for headaches, sprains, abdominal and chest pains

Kawayan
Bambusa vulgaris Schrader ex Wendl.
Culms
Phil, pantropic
Wooded thickets
Culms used for house construction, handicrafts

Kuhasi
Commelina benghalensis L.
Herb
Phil, Africa, Micronesia
Wet ground, abandoned fields
Leaves for external medicinal use

Loria (Batanes saba)
Musa paradisiacal L. cultivar
Herb
Batanes
Planted in farms, backyards
Fruit is edible; blossom for vegetable, corms for vegetable

Manichit
Tabernamontana pandacaqui Poir.
Shrub
Phil, pantropic
Open waste places, thickets
Fencing plants separating farms

Naha
Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Herb
Phil, China, India, cultivated elsewhere
Cultivated fields
Rhizome for condiment in cooking; medicine against colds; to induce perspiration.

Nangka
Artucarpos heterophyllus Lamk.
Tree
Phil, native of India
Planted in farms, gardens, backyards
Fruit is edible; young fruit cooked as vegetable

Narapan
Osmoxylon pectinatum (Merr.) Philip.
Tree
Batanes & Northern Luzon, Taiwan
Lowland primary forests, secondary forests

Ornamental plant
Natu
Palaquium formosanum Hayata
Tree
Philippines, Taiwan
Lowland forests
Wood used as lumber; fruits are edible.

Nito
Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw
Vine
Phil, Indo-China, Australia
Lowland forests
Medicine for irregular ear discharges; material for handicrafts; tying material

Nyinyi
Donax canniformis (Fort.f.) K.Schum.
Herb
Phil, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea
Lowland forests, wooded thickets
Raw materials for handicrafts

Onas
Saccharum officinarum L.
Culm
Phil, pantropic
Cultivated in fields
Juice made into syrup, fermented to wine and vinegar, leaves fed to cows and carabaos

Pait, tapait
Begonia fenicis Merr.
Herb
Batanes, Taiwan
Lowland forests, littoral cliffs
Ornamental plant, may be eaten as salad, stem is sour

Palupo
Pemphis acidula J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
Shrub
Phil, Tropical Africa, Australia
Rocky coastal areas, forested cliffs, wooded thickets

Ornamental
Pawali
Syzygium sp.
Closely resembles Syzygium taiwanianicum Chang & Miau from Lan Yu

Tree
Endemic in Itbayat Island
Planted in backyards and roadsides in Itbayat
Fruit is edible
Payen
Ardisia confertiflora Merr.
Tree
Endemic to Batanes, Babuyan, Mindoro
Lowland forests. Wooded thickets
Fruits are edible, ornamental tree, Leaves used as poultice for swelling toes and fingers.

Rayi
Paederia foetida L.
Vine
Phil, India, Malaya
Secondary forests
Leaves rubbed on body to cure fatigue or pain; vine is for tying material

Riwas
Drypetes falcata (Merr.) Pax & K.Hoffm.

Tree
Batanes & Babuyan (endemic)
Lowland forests, wooded thickets
Ornamental plant, lumber
Sahbang
Erythrina variegate L.
Tree
Phil, Africa, Fiji
Coastal areas, wooded thickets

Ornamental tree
Samoh
Piper betle L.
Vine
Phil, India. Malay Peninsula
Cultivated in gardens and fields
Leaves applied to red patches on skin; leaves as ingredient in masticatory together with beetle nut.

Savidug
Terminalia catappa L.
Tree
Phil, Madagascar, Southwestern Pacific
Common along beaches, secondary forests
Shade tree, lumber for house construction

Siempre viva
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers.
Herb
Phil (introduced)
Cultivated in gardens
Leaves applied on the head to reduce headache

Sudi
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
Herb
Originated from Southeast Asia, now pantropic

Planted in farms and gardens
Major root crop, also cooked as vegetable
Suha
Citrus maxima (Burn.) Merr.
Tree
Phil, native of the Old World
Cultivated in farms, gardens, backyards

Fruit is edible.
Tadayeb
Saccharum spontaneum L.
Culms
Phil, Western Asia, Papua New Guinea
Lowland grasslands
Weeds, leaves sometimes used as thatched roof material

Tadivachib
Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. Ex Engl & Kraus
Herb
Phil, China Solomon Islands
Lowland forests, in clearings, clinging on coconut or tree trunks

Ornamental plant
Tamidok
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw
Fern
Phil, China, New Guinea
Lowland forest, edge of forest clearings

Salad or cooked as vegetable
Tanghad
Themeda gigantean (Cav.) Hack.
Herb
Phil, pantropic
Common in open fields, dry & steep slopes at low to medium altitude

Leaves sometimes used for roof thatch.
Tanyud
Morus alba (L.) Roxb.
Tree
Native to China, cultivated & naturalized elsewhere
Secondary forests, wooded thickets
Leaves as medicine for rheumatism and joint pains; ripe fruit are edible

Tavadaday
Cyathea lepifera (J. Sm.) Copel.

Fern
Philippines
Lowland forests
Ornamental plant
Tipdus, Tubho
Odontosoria chinensis (L.) J.Sm.
Fern
Phil, Africa, Malesia
Thickets or exposed areas, low to medium altitude

Tea
Tipuho
Artocarpus treculianus Elm.
Tree
Endemic to Philippines
Farms gardens; along roadsides, secondary forests, edge of forests
Fruit is edible as vegetable, leaves as substitutes for plates, wood used for tatayas, lumber for houses, sap cooked and cured as latex to catch birds, shade tree.

Tubhus
Pittosporum moluccanum (Lamk.) Miq.

Shrub
Phil, Taiwan, Australia
Wooded thickets
Ornamental plant
Tungaw
Clerodendum inerme (L.) Gaertn.
Shrub
Phil, China, Southwestern Pacific Islands

Lowland forests, wooded thickets
Ornamental plant
Tutupdis
Gelonium aequoreum Hance
Tree
Batanes (Ivuhos Is.), Taiwan (Lan Yu)
Thickets, open coastal areas
Ornamental plant.
Uhango
Pandamus odoratissimus L.f.
Pandamus odorifer (Forssk.) Kuntze

Shrub
Phil, China, Australia
Along beaches, lowland grasslands
Fruits edible; leaves used for handicrafts
Uhango nu kurang
Dracaena angustifolia Roxb.

Shrub
Phil, India, Australia
Lowland forests
Ornamental plant
Unknown local name
Angiopteris palmiformis (Cav.) C.Chr.
Fern
Phil, Indo-China, Taiwan, Marianas
Lowland forests, along streams and rivers

Ornamental plant
Unknown local name
Hoya spp.
Vine
Batanes
Clinging on wayside trees and secondary vegetation

Ornamental plant
Unknown local name
Curculigo captulata (Lour.) Kantze
Molineria capitulate (Lour.)
Herb

Herb
Phil, China, Australia
Lowland forests
Ornamental plant
Unknown local name
Senna alata (L.) Roxb.

Shrub
Phil; native to tropical countries
Wooded thickets, cultivated areas
Medicine for skin diseases
Unknown local name
Abelmosehus moschatus (L.) Medic.

Shrub
Phil, China, Fiji
Wooded thickets
Ornamental plant
Unknown local name
Hibiscus mutabilis L.
Tree
Phil, China, Taiwan, cultivated elsewhere

Wooded thickets
Ornamental plant
Unknown local name
Phalaenopsis aphrodite Reichb.f.

Orchid
Phil, China. Taiwan
Lowland forests
Ornamental plant
Unknown local name
Peucedanum japonicum Thumb.
Herb
Batanes, China, Ryuku Islands
Littoral cliffs
Plant is said to be medicinal.

Uvi
Dioscorea alata L.
Vine
Tropical and subtropical Asia
Cultivated in fields
Major root crop in Batanes

Vadino
Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R.Br.
Vine
Phil, pantropic
Common among beach areas
Leaves for healing wounds

Vadite
Ficus microcarpa L.f.
Tree
Phil, China, New Caledonia
Lowland forests, littoral cliffs
Ornamental tree, fruits eaten by birds, shoots are edible

Vadite (Tapah in Itbayat)
Ficus benjamina L.
Tree
Phil, China, Solomon Islands
Lowland forests, wooded thickets

Ornamental tree
Vakong
Crinum asiaticum L.
Herb
Phil, Mauritius, Samoa
Sandy coastal or beach areas, lowland grasslands

Medicinal, ornamental plant
Valayvalayan
Radermachera fenicis Merr.
Tree
Phil, Thailand, Moluccas
Wooded thickets, secondary forests, planted in backyards

Ornamental plant
Valit
Calamus batanensis (Becc.) Baja-Lapis
Vine
Batanes endemic
Lowland forests, wooded thickets
Fruits are edible, vine for handicrafts; tying material

Valo
Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex Correa
Tree
Phil, pantropic
Wooded thickets
 Stems for posts and fences; leaves to cure wounds; fruits and leaves applied to skin to cure allergies and rashes.

Vanakawoy
Callicarpa formosana Rolfe var. formosana

Shrub
Batanes, Taiwan
Lowland forests
Used for hedgerows
Vanatchi
Macaranga tanarius (L.) Muell.-Ang.

Tree
Phil, Andaman Islands, Australia
Secondary forests
Leaves cure boils
Vanayi
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Shrub
Phil, China, Australia
Lowland forests, thickets, gardens
Hardwood used for handles of metal tools; ornamental plant
Varatinok
Citrus sp.
Tree
Batanes endemic

Lowland forests, thickets, gardens

Good for lemonade.  Juice extracted for treating meat much like using kalamansi except that varatino's taste is much more elegant.

Varok
Zanthoxylum integrifoliolum (Merr.) Merr.
Tree
Phil, Taiwan (Lan Yu)
Lowland forests, cultivated areas
Fruits are edible; spongy material gathered from roots used as sealant for tataya.

Vatinglao
Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh.
Tree
Philippines, West Africa, India, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Malesia, Australia, Ryuku Islands, Taiwan, Lan Yu

Lowland forests, wooded thickets
Lumber, bark may be mixed with sugar cane juice to enhance taste of fermented alcoholic beverage.
Vayakbak
Syzygium sp.
Tree
Batanes endemic
Lowland forests, wooded thickets, planted along roads, in backyards
Used for hedgerows; trunk for lumber, firewood.  Fruits are edible (sometimes called Batanes makopa).

Vayasuvas
Freycinetia formosana Hemsl.
Shrub
Phil (Batanes), Japan (Ryuku), Taiwan (Tan Yu and Lutao)
Lowland forests
Aerial roots used as handicraft materials, tying material

Vayit
Cycas edentate de Laub.
Tree
Phil, Andaman Islands, Timor
Exposed forested cliffs, along beaches

Ornamental plant
Vinay
Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng.
Tree
Phil, China, Australia
Backyards and open lots, lowland forests

Fruits edible, ornamental plant
Viyawo
Miscanthus floridulus (Labill.) Warb. ex Schum. & Laut.
Culms
Phil, China, Fiji
Summit of Mt. Iraya, roadsides, hillsides
Used as roofing material, inflorescence used as broom, used as hedgerows

Vodadin, vodalin
Leea guineensis G.Don
Tree
Phil, Africa, Irian jaya
Lowland forests, wooded thickets

Medicinal
Vonyitan
Lilium philippinense Baker
Herb
Phil, Taiwan (Tan Yu)
In the Philippines, confined to Batanes, Benguet, Bontoc, Mt. :Provinces.

Open grasslands
Ornamental
Voyavoy
Phoenix loureiroi Kunth.var. loureiroi

Phoenix hanceana var. philipinensis

Palm Tree
Batanes, China

In the Philippines, this palm is found only in Batanes, now threatened
Lowland grasslands
Ornamental plant; leaves used for vakul, kanayi, brooms. Ripe fruits are edible.
Vua
Areca catechu L. var. catechu
Palm tree with oblong fruits
Philippines
Cultivated in fields and wooded thickets
Nut is chewed as nganga; used as medicine to relieve headaches; trunks used as house floorings

Vua
Areca catechu L. var. batanensis Becc
Palm tree with rounded fruits
Batanes endemic
Lowland forests, wooded thickets
Same use as A. catechu var catechu

Vuchid
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Var. major
Grass
Phil, pantropic
Grassland
Weed; roofing material, boiled roots used as medicinal beverage

Vula
Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don

Herb
Phil, Malaysia, Solomon Islands
Edges of lowland forests
Ornamental plant
Vutalao
Calophyllum inophyllum L.
Tree
Phil, Africa, Southwestern Pacific Islands

Lowland forests, wooded thickets
Lumber for boats
Vuton
Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Kurz.
Tree
Phil, Africa, Southwestern Pacific Islands

Common along beaches
Shade tree, lumber for boat planks
Wakay
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.
Vine
Pantropic, Introduced to the Philippines from Mexico by Spaniards
Cultivated in farms
Major root crop of Batanes.  Leaves as vegetable.

Waling-waling
Vanda lamellata Lindl.
Orchid
Phil, Taiwan, Borneo
Lowland forests, cliffs facing the sea in Itbayat

Ornamental plant
Yabnoy
Ficus septica Burm.f.
Tree
Phil, Ryuku, Southwestern Pacific Islands
Lowland forests, wooded thickets, littoral cliffs

Shade tree on roadsides

Bring this along when you visit Batanes.  It could be a good reference.